Proper care for cancer patients: features of the organization of care

Cancer pathologies require long-term treatment. First, the patient is in the hospital, where examination, surgery and other medical measures are carried out. Then he is discharged home. Before starting therapy, relatives should ask the doctor about the need to purchase medications or perform additional diagnostic procedures. The specialist, in turn, must inform the patient’s family members about the specifics of caring for cancer patients, the principles of nutrition, hygiene measures. These aspects are determined by what form of cancer and at what stage is present in a person, and what treatment he receives. After a course of procedures in a hospital, it is time to discharge. Relatives should take the patient to their home as soon as possible. The hospital environment has a depressing effect on the physical and mental state. Properly organized care for cancer patients at home allows patients to be in a comfortable atmosphere.

Possible concerns

Relatives of a patient with cancer pathology, of course, are in shock when they learn about the diagnosis of a loved one. They have a lot of questions to doctors, one of which is: is it possible to get infected with a malignant neoplasm? To date, the exact causes of the disease are unknown. Experts say that infection with cancer is unlikely.

Proper care for cancer patients: features of the organization of care

However, many avoid close contact with patients, and this deprives patients of the emotional support they need. The patient feels the nervousness of his relatives, and this contributes to the deterioration of his already weakened health. Such situations are common. It should be remembered that caring for cancer patients requires an attentive, tactful and sensitive approach to patients.

Difficulties encountered by relatives. Ways to overcome them.

Close people who care for a patient with cancer pathology are in a difficult situation. They have to combine caring for a relative with responsibilities at work and everyday problems. Additional monetary expenses and negative experiences further worsen the situation. Contacting a specialist in psychology helps the patient’s family members cope with the trials. It is desirable that relatives go to the doctor’s appointment with the patient. This allows you to learn exactly about medical procedures, directions of therapy, side effects of drugs. Patients may hesitate to ask a specialist about treatment. They are afraid that they will not be able to understand the doctor’s explanations.

What should relatives learn?

When organizing home care for cancer patients, family members need to find out some aspects. Before going to the doctor, it is advisable to make a list of questions. Here are the most important ones:

  1. What medical measures should be carried out to determine the form of cancer?
  2. What type of oncopathology is diagnosed, at what stage? What kind of therapy is required?
  3. Are there other methods of treatment within the framework of compulsory medical insurance or in private institutions?
  4. What are the side effects of drugs?
  5. Is it possible to mitigate them?
  6. How long will it take to carry out medical procedures?
  7. With what frequency should the events take place?
  8. In what situations should I consult a doctor outside of the appointment time? The doctor’s answers to these and other questions should be recorded

Features of physical care of relatives for cancer patients

The patient’s relatives should perform atypical actions: eliminating signs such as nausea and vomiting, applying bandages, using medical devices, hygiene procedures. In order to effectively cope with responsibilities, it is necessary to write down in advance a list of tasks to be solved. It is important that the patient takes part in self-care. You can ask for help from other family members, from friends. The information provided by the doctor in writing, as well as medical devices should be stored in a convenient place. For effective care of patients with oncological diseases, it is important to create an environment in the house that is as comfortable and safe as possible for the patient. He should have more room to move around. Handrails should be placed next to the bathroom and bathroom, and a stool should be placed in the shower. Relatives should know in advance how to use the necessary medical equipment. You can ask a nurse or doctor to write step-by-step instructions. It is necessary to clearly find out what drugs are given to the patient, their dosage. Medicines should always be in a convenient place. Relatives need to have instructions for medications with them in order to know about the effect of the funds on the body. If the patient’s family members are unable to cope with all the responsibilities, specially trained staff should be hired to provide nursing care for cancer patients.

Features of monitoring and control of the condition.

Certain aspects of the regime are of great importance for regular measurement of body weight. Weight loss is one of the symptoms of complications. Also, the medical staff is obliged to check the body temperature from time to time. All the results of the patient’s observations should be recorded in the documents. It should be remembered that in the case of metastases in the spinal column, a person is placed on a wooden board, which is placed under the mattress. Some patients need small walks in the fresh air and regular ventilation. This aspect is important in the organization of medical care for cancer patients with tumors in the lungs. The fluid that is often released from the respiratory tract in case of illness should be collected in spittoons. These devices are washed daily in hot water, treated with turpentine and bleach. If laboratory tests are necessary, the biomaterial is placed in a vessel, which should also be disinfected regularly.

Features of the diet

An important rule of care for cancer patients is that they should be provided with nutritious, tasty and varied food. It is necessary to exclude cold, hot, spicy, fried and heavy dishes. If the patient suffers from a malignant neoplasm of the stomach at a late stage, he is given easily digestible products (sour cream, cottage cheese, boiled fish, broths, steamed cutlets, chopped fruits and vegetables, tea with sugar, liquid cereals). In case of violation of the patency of the gastrointestinal tract, the patient is prescribed mixtures. Sometimes it is necessary to carry out feeding with a probe. Patients often have stool retention. In this situation, intestinal lavage and laxatives (vaseline oil, rhubarb, magnesium sulfate) are used. A diet of liquid and nutritious foods is recommended. If a patient is diagnosed with severe obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, he is undergoing surgery.

Difficulties associated with pain syndrome

One of the important features of caring for cancer patients is the need to eliminate severe discomfort. The tumor and its metastases cause extremely unpleasant sensations. The only method of getting rid of pain in the later stages is the use of funds prescribed by a doctor. If an individual is in a hospital or at home under the supervision of a nurse, medical staff need to monitor the schedule of taking medications.

Psychological and ethical aspects

There are a number of rules that must be observed by the doctor and close people when communicating with the patient. Specialists are not recommended to inform the patient of the diagnosis. In the documents that are given to the individual, it is necessary to replace the terms related to oncology with more neutral ones. Although the question of whether to tell the patient about the pathology is considered ambiguous. There is a category of patients who, having heard about the diagnosis, direct all their efforts to fight it. Other patients experience shock, give up. The tactics of the behavior of relatives should be based on the characteristics of the patient’s character. After discharge during the period of home care for a cancer patient, it is important not to allow the individual to withdraw into himself. It is necessary to treat a relative kindly. The disease should be mentioned only if necessary. It is better to talk about topics related to family, work, plans and interests.

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