Under caries, they used to understand the holes that appear on the teeth. However, caries begins long before the problem becomes visible. Experts recommend taking care of your teeth, since the damaged surface is not subject to regeneration. You will have to spend money on treatment, which is hardly inexpensive.
Causes of caries development
Caries has an infectious nature of origin. It is a lesion of the dental tissue with its subsequent demineralization. Hard fabrics become soft, losing their natural properties. A defect forms at the site of the lesion. No one is immune from the disease. Caries occurs both on the milk teeth of children of the first year of life, and in adult patients. Gender also does not matter, but men, according to statistics, face caries more often than women, because they often neglect the rules of personal hygiene.
The oral cavity of every person is the habitat of countless bacteria. While there is no numerical superiority of representatives of the pathogenic group, problems in the oral cavity do not arise. There are many factors that can reduce local immune protection. Among them:
- bleaching procedure;
- improper nutrition;
- uncontrolled use of antibiotics.
The largest number of pathogenic bacteria lives on plaque. It is a soft formation of an adhesive texture located on the border of the convergence of the tooth and gum. A large accumulation of plaque can completely cover the entire tooth, ruinously affecting its hard tissues.
It is enough not to brush your teeth for just a day to form plaque. It contains pathogenic bacteria that actively build a special type of connection between themselves. It allows them to form a special protective film that hides pathogens from the effects of antibiotics and antiseptics. Bacteria easily destroy the tooth under the protective film, forming a cavity in it called caries.
Over time, microorganisms and their destructive force descends deep into the tooth along the formed cavity. The longer the visit to the dentist is delayed, the more difficult the way to solve the problem will be in the future.
Sweets accelerate the processes of tooth decay, since it is carbohydrates, which are sugars, that are the food of pathogenic bacteria.
Types of caries
Tooth damage is classified according to several characteristics:
- location of localization;
- the extent of the lesion.
The very first stage, characterized by the primary signs of the lesion, is called a chalk spot by dentists. The next stage is dentin, in which the enamel and dentine border are affected. This is followed by pulpitis, in which the pulp is affected. The last stage is periodontitis. It is characterized by possible carious destruction of the root of the tooth in the cervical region.
You can visually notice the destruction of the tooth by the darkened area on it. A dark pigment spot lies on the enamel, which makes it even more noticeable due to the contrast.
According to the place of its localization , the following classification of caries is distinguished:
- First class. This includes the most common types of lesions affecting the grooves of the chewing teeth, natural depressions on the incisors, canines and molars. The popularity of this localization is quite simple to explain — the bristles of a toothbrush do not go deep into the grooves, and if it is selected incorrectly, as well as due to insufficient attention paid to hard-to-reach areas, caries develops.
- Second grade. This includes lesions that spread at the joints between adjacent teeth. Caries spreads especially quickly where molars and premolars are in close contact with each other.
- The third class includes lesions of the contact surface of the canines and incisors, excluding violations of the cutting edge itself.
- The fourth class is an aggravated third class, when the angle of the crown part of the teeth, including its cutting edge, is also affected.
- The fifth class includes lesions of the cervical region, regardless of the serial number of the tooth.
- The sixth class of lesion extends to the bumps of the premolars and molars, as well as the cutting edges of the canines and incisors.
For the patient, this classification indicates particularly problematic areas. Insufficiently thorough hygiene of the narrow spaces between the teeth, the recesses of the chewing teeth and the cervical region leads to desiccation.
Symptoms of caries
First of all, you should pay attention to the change in the color of the enamel. The very first sign is its yellowing. If a separate spot of a chalky or gray tone has formed on the tooth, this indicates the beginning of the demineralization process. In addition to the external manifestation, an increase in the sensitivity of individual teeth can also be noted. This situation indicates damage to the upper protective layer of the tooth (enamel), as a result of which cold, hot and solid food becomes a real problem for the patient. An important distinguishing feature of the enamel lesion is the immediate self-elimination of pain immediately after the exposure to extreme temperatures stops.
The lower the infection passes into the tooth cavity, the higher its sensitivity during chewing. The lower layers of dental tissue contain a large number of blood vessels and nerve endings, which is why the level of soreness increases significantly.
Pulpitis is considered the most painful. It is this degree of tooth destruction that can move from a limited location to the jaw. If the inflammation of the root of the tooth develops into periodontitis, there is a high risk of suppuration, abscess and infection of the bone tissue of the jaw.
Rules of oral care
Due to the fact that a person changes his teeth only once, dentists recommend instilling the habit of regular oral care from childhood. It is important not just to buy toothpaste and a brush, but to approach the choice responsibly. People with sensitive gums need medium-hard bristles. And for those who do not suffer from such a problem, you need a hard bristle on the brush. Such brushes are always available in any supermarket. It is important to brush your teeth twice a day, the duration of each procedure is about 2 minutes.