Gingivitis is an inflammatory process that develops in the oral cavity and affects the gums. The disease is often accompanied by bleeding, soreness during meals.
Gingivitis — what is it
Gingivitis is an acute gum disease that can become chronic. Gingivitis is characterized by the appearance of bad breath, erosions on the surface of the mucous membrane, bleeding, which increases at the slightest contact of the gum surface with food fragments.
Complications of the disease can turn into periodontitis, loosening of teeth and their loss. Timely treatment can get rid of the problem in a short time and prevent the worst consequences in the form of tooth loss.
Causes of gingivitis
The cause of gingivitis is an excessive accumulation of plaque. It lies on the teeth along the edge of contact with the gum, as well as in crevices and other hard-to-reach places. If the plaque is not cleaned off within 72 hours, it begins to condense and turn from a soft substance into tartar, which cannot be removed with a toothbrush alone.
In adolescents going through puberty and women during menstrual bleeding, the risk of gingivitis increases due to changes in the hormonal background, which affects the formation of hyperplasia of the tissues of the mucous membrane of the gums. The risk group also includes women taking oral contraceptives. In addition, taking drugs based on nifedipine can give a side reaction in the form of hypertrophic gingivitis.
Other reasons include:
- Tooth growth. Since this process is accompanied by swelling of the gum and its injury, an inflammatory process may develop.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, reflux, in which acid is released from the stomach into the esophagus and even the oral cavity.
- Lack of vitamin C, due to which the vessels become fragile, prone to rupture. For this reason, bleeding occurs.
- Mechanical injuries, as a result of which the protective layer of the mucous membrane is violated and access is opened for the attachment of a secondary infection, which is especially important if the rules of oral hygiene are not observed.
- Eating too hot or cold food, which negatively affects the blood vessels supplying the gums.
- Diabetes mellitus. This disease changes the chemical composition of saliva, which reduces the amount of lysozyme – a substance with an antiseptic property that protects the oral cavity from infections.
Gingivitis in most cases is the result of a lack of oral hygiene. With a huge number of pathogenic bacteria in the mouth, any violation of the integrity of the gum mucosa will lead to infection, regardless of what exactly caused the injury.
The manifestation of gingivitis
Most often there is a local gingivitis – a lesion not of the entire jaw, but only of a separate part of it. As a rule, inflammation covers no more than 1-2 rows of growing teeth. If you do not pay attention to the problem immediately, redness and swelling of the mucous membrane will begin to spread, and then it will be possible to talk about gingivitis of the upper or lower jaw.
The main symptoms of gingivitis are:
- swelling of the gum mucosa;
- soreness of touch;
- hyperemia of the inflamed area;
- local temperature rise;
- formation of ulcers.
With chronic gingivitis, there may not be typical manifestations of the disease. As a rule, there is no pronounced soreness. The maximum that the patient feels is discomfort. The main distinguishing feature of chronic gingivitis is tissue hyperplasia, which begins to grow on the surface of the tooth.
Others can guess about the disease of the oral cavity by the unpleasant smell from the mouth, which resembles the smell of rot. It is especially pronounced when ulcers and erosions appear, in which pathogenic bacteria begin to spread and aggravate the condition.
Drugs for treatment
Treatment of gingivitis should primarily be aimed at the destruction of pathogenic flora in the oral cavity. This is easy to achieve if you buy mouthwashes with an antiseptic effect. Such means, during washing, remove bacteria from the surface of teeth and gums, simultaneously penetrating into the damaged tissue and disinfecting it.
In pharmacies, you can find a wide variety of gingivitis rinses that successfully cope with their task. The most effective means are based on:
In addition, some plants also have antiseptic properties:
- oak code;
Alcoholic infusions are not approved by doctors, because they aggravate the injury of the mucous membrane by burning it. It is better to give preference to decoctions. When using vegetable raw materials, possible allergic reactions to some components should be taken into account and, if there are negative reactions in the anamnesis, refuse to use the decoction.
Along with rinses, there are ointments for gingivitis. Such remedies relieve inflammation and may contain lidocaine as an anesthetic. Gels and ointments fight infection by including antibacterial and antifungal agents in the composition.
In case of chronic gingivitis, it is recommended to choose a toothpaste with medicinal properties. If there is a need to use a gel against gum inflammation.
It is important not to forget that it is easier to prevent the disease than to treat it. Therefore, you should not forget to brush your teeth twice a day, for two minutes. And in the middle of the day, it will not be superfluous to rinse the mouth with warm water to remove food residues.