The defeat of malignant tumors of the intestinal department begins with the formation of adenomas and polyps in them. Pathological changes pass without pronounced symptoms, eventually transform into bowel cancer. Only periodic screening testing allows timely detection of polyps and prescribe surgical removal, until their rebirth into oncology.
Symptoms of colon damage
The main clinical signs of cancer are presented:
- deviations in the standard work of the gastrointestinal tract with dyspeptic disorders, changes in the structure of fecal masses lasting more than 1 month;
- the appearance of blood particles in the feces;
- uncomfortable sensations in the abdomen, flatulence, intermittent pain syndrome;
- feeling of incomplete bowel release;
- deterioration of the condition, loss of body weight.
The early stages of cancer lesions are asymptomatic. The first clinical manifestations of the disease occur with a significant increase in the volume of the tumor, may be associated with the location of its localization.
The root causes of the formation of a neoplasm
The true sources of cancer development have not been established. Experts suggest several variants of its appearance due to hereditary predisposition:
- to adenomatous polyposis;
- non -polypous form of colorectal cancer;
- malignant tumors in the small intestine, liver, brain, urinary tract, dermis.
Scientists have identified a link between oncology and the type of nutrition. A high fat content and an insignificant intake of vegetable fiber leads to an increased risk of formation of neoplasms due to constant inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract. There is a theory that cancer occurs with the active use of processed meat products and red meats.
The list of risk factors for which a cancerous lesion of the intestine is formed is presented:
- older age – the disease is more often registered in patients after 50 years;
- belonging to the African-American race;
- inflammatory diseases of the intestinal department – chronic ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease;
- the presence of pathology in the next of kin;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- diabetes mellitus;
- obesity of all degrees;
- nicotine and alcohol addiction;
- radiation therapy.
Representatives of these groups often suffer from bowel cancer.
Screening plays an important role in the prevention of oncology. Testing is recommended for patients without pronounced symptoms of the disease to determine its development at the initial stages. The American Cancer Community recommends regular prescribing of tests to people over 45 and under 75 years of age.
The types of screening are presented:
- colonoscopy – prescribed in the absence of symptoms every 10 years;
- CT colonography – performed every 5 years;
- analysis of feces for hidden blood – at least once a year.
The appropriate diagnostic method is determined by the attending physician. For people with a predisposition to oncological pathologies, diagnosis after 45 years is prescribed more often. The risk group includes patients:
- with registered familial cancer;
- polyps, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease;
- Lynch syndrome, hereditary colorectal cancer;
- who underwent radiation therapy in the pelvic region or abdominal area.
It is possible to prevent the formation of a cancerous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract by changes in the patient’s usual lifestyle. The list of preventive measures includes:
- Revision of the diet – products containing a large amount of vegetable fiber are added to the daily menu. In addition to fiber, fruits, whole grains and vegetables contain vitamin and mineral elements, antioxidants, which play an important role in prevention. The table should not be limited to the same fruit and vegetable crops, diversity will allow you to get different nutrients.
- Giving up alcohol products or reducing its quantity, nicotine addiction therapy – bad habits gradually destroy the body, reduce its resistance to diseases. Smoking negatively affects the functioning of blood vessels, provoking problems with the supply of oxygen and nutrients to problem areas.
- An increase in physical activity – daily walks in the fresh air, exercises for half an hour a day will reduce the likelihood of the formation of many pathological conditions. Experts advise gradually increasing the training time, not trying to immediately get into the maximum rhythm.
- Normalization of weight – excess body weight and obesity of various degrees negatively affects the functionality of internal organs and systems. To get rid of extra pounds, the patient will have to switch to dietary nutrition with daily sports training. A nutritionist will tell you the right diet.
Weight reduction should take place gradually, strict diets with a minimum amount of calories are prohibited.
Features of therapy
After confirmation of the oncological diagnosis , the patient is assigned:
- surgical treatment with excision of problem areas;
- radiation therapy;
- combination of chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Additionally, medications are taken to stabilize the immune system, targeted therapy that causes cancer cells to stop multiplying, without affecting healthy tissues. Medical procedures are prescribed in accordance with the stage of the disease, the general condition of the body.