Dysplasia: essence, types, diagnosis, treatment

Due to failures of intrauterine development or under the influence of negative factors, the cells of the body can change their structure, acquiring atypical properties. What is the name of such a condition, how it is dangerous, how it is diagnosed and treated, we will consider in the article.

What is dysplasia, varieties

Dysplasia is a condition in which the structure of the totality of cells of the human body is disrupted. The violation can be expressed in the simplification of the structure, deformation of both the cellular units themselves and their elements.

The changes may be congenital, caused by a genetic malfunction, or acquired during life.

In the first case, the manifestations of pathology are diverse, they can simultaneously affect different systems of the body.

The second type is provoked by the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, it is not related to heredity. Includes: dysplasia of the cervix, gastric mucosa, intestines, in this case, the pathology has a specific localization.

What is dysplasia, varieties

Congenital disease can be in the form of:

  • developmental anomalies, when a deviation in the structure does not interfere with the normal operation of the organ;
  • malformation, when the normal functioning of the affected area is difficult.

Dysplasia of the mucous membranes does not contribute to the formation of anomalies and defects. Their danger lies in the ability to turn into a malignant process.

Types of pathologies formed in utero:

  • ectodermal dysplasia, in which the formation of the outer skin, oral mucosa, nails and hair, teeth, sweat and salivary glands is disrupted. Signs of pathology can have different severity – from slight dryness of the skin with foci of thinning to complete absence of teeth;
  • articular dysplasia, expressed in malformations of the hip joints, as well as the joints of the knees, hands, feet;
  • connective tissue dysplasia, in which malfunctions of the body are possible. The severity of the pathology can be different: neurological disorders, heart defects, vasodilation, changes in the skeleton;
  • fibrous dysplasia, characterized by bone damage by single and multiple cysts.

Dysplasia of the mucous membranes

A person acquires these pathologies during life. Features:

  • absence of symptoms or presence of minimal signs;
  • the possibility of developing from a minor degree to cancer;
  • severe degrees of pathology are difficult to distinguish from carcinoma.

The main types include dysplasia:

  • stomach, which can occur against the background of diseases such as gastritis or ulcers, tests can show the presence of helicobacteria, the essence is in the change of the epithelial cells of the stomach. Mild and moderate pathologies are capable of regression, a severe degree is attributed to a precancerous condition;
  • cervical cancer, the cause is the presence of human papillomavirus in the body, pathology means the identification of atypical cells in the mucous membrane of the cervix, possibly degeneration into cancer;
  • bladder, symptoms include frequent and painful urge to urinate, with pathology, cells with altered structure are detected in the epithelium of the organ.

Examinations for dysplasia

In order to make an accurate diagnosis, if any dysplasia is suspected, a comprehensive examination is prescribed.

The patient will have to donate blood and urine for analysis. Further, the diagnosis is determined by the type of pathology and its localization.

Examinations for dysplasia

If the stomach is affected , it is prescribed:

  • EGDS;
  • Ultrasound of the stomach and abdominal organs;
  • stomach X-ray, which allows to assess the condition of the mucosa and changes in its structure;
  • helicobacter test;
  • histological examination of atypical cells;
  • a biopsy.

If the cervix is affected, the gynecologist conducts an examination, and also prescribes:

  • colposcopy, during which the cervix is examined under a special microscope;
  • cytological examination using a PAP test;
  • tests for the detection of human papillomavirus;
  • tests and smears for infections, including sexually transmitted infections;
  • biopsy, that is, taking a fragment of the epithelium for examination (if indicated).

In case of hip dysplasia, ultrasound is performed for infants. To exclude pathology, a pediatric surgeon or orthopedist must be visited in one and three months, as well as in six months and a year. If the doctor finds deviations from the norm, he will prescribe radiography and ultrasonography.

How dysplasia is treated

Congenital pathologies, as a rule, are not treated radically. Only life-threatening vices are operated on. The main treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and maintaining the ability to move.

Hip dysplasia is detected in infancy, a mild degree is treatable at an early stage. Babies are widely swaddled up to 3 months, and older children are prescribed the use of diverting tires. The main therapy includes physical therapy, massage, physiotherapy.

Dysplasia of the stomach is treated with a diet, antibacterial therapy, medications are prescribed to restore the mucosa and protect it from damage, gastritis and ulcers are treated. Regular observation by a gastroenterologist is shown. In severe cases, endoscopic surgery is performed.

Treatment of bladder dysplasia with medications, according to scientists and urologists, does not give the proper effect. The operation helps to cope with the pathology, in which the organ is preserved, and only the altered epithelium is removed.

A mild degree of cervical dysplasia is treated with drugs for internal and local use. Anti-inflammatory therapy, bringing the hormonal background back to normal, restoring the microflora are mandatory.

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If the pathology is difficult to treat or the process has moved to a moderate / severe degree, then surgical intervention is indicated. Conization, that is, the removal of a sector of the neck resembling a cone in shape, is carried out by laser or radio wave methods. The operation gives minimal scarring, pregnancy may occur and the child may be carried after full recovery.

Prevention of pathologies is the passage of regular medical examinations and attentive attitude to your body.

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