Chronic prostatitis is a disease associated with the inflammatory process of the prostate gland, which, due to incorrect treatment, has been lasting for more than 3-6 months.
The pathology is characterized by blurred symptoms, sluggish course with periodic periods of exacerbation.
The structure and functions of the prostate gland
The prostate gland (prostate) is a hormone-dependent organ of the male body, located between the rectum and the muscular diaphragm of the bladder, between the seminal vesicles and the pubic symphysis.
The prostate resembles in shape an almost ripe chestnut fruit: the two lobes touch in the isthmus, the vas deferens depart from it. On the prostate gland, a thin and not deep vertical groove runs almost in the center.
The prostate performs several important functions for reproduction at once:
- It produces a secret that makes up 30% of the volume of sperm and ensures its liquid state;
- Blocks the ureter during sexual contact;
- Protects against the penetration of pathogens into the urinary tract and kidneys.
Due to pathology in the tissues of the prostate gland, erectile function primarily suffers. In addition, the prostate is surrounded and permeated by numerous branches of nerve fibers.
Due to inflammation (prostatitis), edema appears, swelling of the organ tissues that compress the nerve bundles. The man is in severe pain.
What is the difference between the chronic form of prostatitis and acute?
Doctors use the term “chronic form” to contrast another term – “acute form”. That is, in the acute course of pathology, the symptoms are pronounced, the signs are intense. In chronic – lubricated, for example, without fever and other signs of intoxication.
Causes of chronic prostatitis
The initial cause is the development of an inflammatory process caused by an infection or a violation of hormone production. A man rarely turns to a urologist with a delicate problem. Excessive shyness leads to complications.
Without competent therapy, for example, when taking painkillers without eliminating the root cause, the pathology turns into a chronic form.
Symptoms of chronic prostatitis
The main symptom of chronic prostatitis is constant aching pain in the sacrum, perineum, lower abdomen. It increases with urination, radiates into the head of the penis. Incomplete emptying of the bladder, weakening of the pressure of the urine stream or its interruption is often diagnosed.
A man tries to go to the toilet as little as possible, which further aggravates the situation: accumulating urine is a source of infections. For the same reason, he refuses sexual intimacy: during ejaculation, the painful sensations may subside, but after a minute they will return with even greater intensity.
Also , the symptoms of chronic prostatitis doctors include:
- The appearance of blood and pus in the urine;
- Discharge from the urethra during defecation;
- Burning and itching in the urinary tract;
- Excessive sweating in the perineum area;
- Increased erection without preservation during sexual intercourse;
- Rapid ejaculation;
- Decreased libido;
- “Erased” orgasms.
Against the background of these signs, stress, depression, insomnia develops. If the pathology is not treated, the reproductive function is completely disrupted.
A urologist or andrologist conducts a survey and examination of the patient. An important test will be a rectal examination: the structure and size of the prostate is well determined through the posterior wall of the rectum. The doctor simultaneously massages the prostate gland, and at the end takes its secret (juice) for analysis. If the cause of inflammation is an infection, its causative agent will be in the secret.
Next, the andrologist directs the patient to take laboratory tests: urine analysis, blood analysis, semen, urethral smears. Experts determine (confirm) the type of the causative agent of infection, hormonal balance, intensity of inflammation.
Urodynamic examination helps to confirm prostatitis in a chronic form. Doctors conduct:
If a man has problems with urination, the doctor performs cystoscopy and urethroscopy – examination of the inner lining of the urethra and bladder using an endoscope. At the same stage, prostate tissue particles are taken for examination under a microscope: specialists find out whether there are modified cells in the prostate that indicate oncology.
Urologists first carry out conservative therapy, if it does not help, they choose surgery. The principles of treatment depend on the root cause of prostatitis.
After the type of the causative agent of infection is identified, doctors choose the most effective medications: antibiotics, antifungal, antiviral. Next, the urologist prescribes remedies that will relieve the symptoms of pathology:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (relieve swelling, pain);
- Adrenoblockers (restore the work of the genitourinary system);
- Anticholinergic (eliminates spasms, dilates blood vessels);
- Angioprotectors (restore blood circulation).
A man needs to take zinc-containing drugs that have a beneficial effect on the reproductive and urinary function of the patient.
In addition to medical treatment, specialists choose physiotherapy:
- Transrectal microwave hyperthermia;
- Low-energy laser therapy;
- Transurethral hyperthermia;
- Ultrasonic phonophoresis.
The methods work with physical forces directly on the inflamed organ, at the same time reducing pain, reducing swelling, restoring metabolism.
Prostate massage is an effective method of treating chronic prostatitis. The effect on the prostate gland through the rectal opening helps to eliminate stagnation, restore blood circulation.
At the final stage of treatment, a man is prescribed physical therapy. Exercises are chosen so that a moderate load goes exactly to the pelvic area.
If the inflammatory process is intense or due to the effects of pathogenic microflora, the glandular tissue has begun to be replaced by connective tissue, doctors perform surgical treatment: the affected tissues are excised.
At the same time eliminate the complications of chronic prostatitis: restore the patency of the urinary tract, eliminate phimosis and other consequences.
Complications without therapy
Chronic prostatitis threatens primarily impotence and infertility. If you do not treat the problem or prescribe medications yourself, you can skip other inflammatory processes and necrotizing prostate tissue. Against this background, other diseases develop:
- The appearance of concretions, cysts in the prostate gland;
- Prostate sclerosis;
- Urinary incontinence;
- The development of benign and malignant tumors.
Due to the inflammatory process in the prostate, the urinary tract narrows. Against the background of prostatitis, the likelihood of developing phimosis, when a man cannot expose the head of the penis without effort and pain.