Atrial fibrillation

The pathological process refers to the common forms of changes in the heart rhythm. Atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation is a violation of the heart, manifested by an acceleration of heart rate, up to 600 beats per minute. The processes of atrial and ventricular contractions also do not coincide and are arrhythmic.

Primary sources of the disease development

Experts divide the causes of atrial fibrillation into two subgroups:

  • cardiac type – related to the performance of the heart muscle;
  • extracardiac – the effect on the heart of third-party factors that provoked a malfunction in its functionality.

Each group includes the main sources of changes in the work of the heart:


Related to the following prerequisites:

  • with rehabilitation conditions after surgery;
  • pathologies of the coronary arteries of the organ;
  • persistent hypertension;
  • congenital, acquired heart defects;
  • cardiomyopathies.

Pathological conditions lead to arrhythmic abnormalities, require urgent medical attention.

Primary sources of the disease development


The development of the disease is provoked by various factors presented by:

  • previously performed operations in the cardiac area;
  • pathologies of the endocrine department – diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, etc.;
  • chronic obstructive processes in the lungs;
  • viral diseases;
  • diseases of the digestive department, central nervous system.

The list of triggers provoking the development of atrial fibrillation is presented:

  • uncontrolled use of medicines;
  • the use of antibacterial medicines;
  • stress, chronic fatigue syndrome;
  • excessive physical exertion;
  • abuse of alcohol and tobacco products;
  • excessive passion for caffeinated beverages, including energy drinks.

The pathological condition is registered at any age. In most patients, it has no pronounced symptoms for a long period, and is detected during preventive examinations.

Classification features

Varieties of atrial fibrillation are divided by type, each type has its own list of symptoms. For division, the clinical course of the disease and the frequency of organ contractions are used.

In the first case , the following forms of AF are considered:

Paroxysmal – characterized by suddenness of attacks lasting up to one calendar week in a row. Deviations disappear spontaneously and do not require professional help.

Persistent – also lasts about 7 days. Suppression of the main manifestations takes place due to taking medications.

Chronic – worries the patient for a long time. The disease does not respond well to drug therapy.

Mild forms of atrial fibrillation are not considered harmless to the body. Heart dysfunction requires immediate medical attention and a full course of treatment.

The division of the disease by the frequency of ventricular contractions includes the following forms:

  • bradysystolic – with a decrease in the indicator to 60 beats per minute;
  • normosystolic – 60-90 units per minute;
  • tachysystolic – over 90 beats every minute.

Its appearance and the necessary course of therapy depend on the available variant of atrial fibrillation.

Clinical picture

The pathological process does not always show clear symptoms, it may occur latently. To clarify the presence of atrial fibrillation, a complete laboratory diagnostic examination is necessary. In most cases, the disease is determined randomly, during preventive examinations or when searching for other diseases.

Classification features

The development of atrial fibrillation may be accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • by a sudden acceleration of the heartbeat, the deviation is visually determined by the veins pulsating in the cervical region;
  • a state of general weakness, a decline in strength;
  • rapid fatigue;
  • painful sensations in the chest space, similar to angina attacks;
  • periodic dizziness, semi-fainting states;
  • impaired coordination of movements – at the time of the attack;
  • shortness of breath in any condition, active work of sweat glands;
  • polyuria , etc .

After the transition of atrial fibrillation into a chronic course, pain in the area of the heart muscle disappears. The body gets used to functioning with the disease, adapting to its manifestations.

Prognosis and complications

The consequences of atrial fibrillation are associated with prolonged ignoring of changes in the condition, untimely referral to a cardiologist or violations when performing a therapeutic regimen. Some patients stop treatment when the first relief appears or violate the norms of taking medications.

Complete cure of atrial fibrillation occurs in exceptional cases, when the pathology is captured at the primary stages of formation. The main complication of the disease is thrombosis of blood vessels.

Refusal of therapeutic procedures in case of illness gives an unfavorable prognosis. Disturbances in the speed and rhythm of heart contractions provoke further progression of the underlying pathology that caused the development of atrial fibrillation. It is impossible to calculate the consequences.

Treatment of the disease depends on its form, provides for the first stages of the use of medicines. The main goals of therapy are normalization of the sinus heart rate, relief of the effects of an attack. Medications are prescribed by the attending physician, their reception lasts about three weeks. In the absence of results or a chronic course of the disease, surgical intervention or implantation of a pacemaker can be used.

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