Changes in the metabolic response to one of the varieties of insulin is called insulin resistance. Pathology leads to an increased concentration of the hormone in the blood compared to real glucose levels. The disease occurs in 15% of men and 10% of women (healthy), with diabetes the ratio is 78 and 84%.
Primary sources of pathology development
A decrease in the reactivity of tissues in relation to the hormone is provoked by a number of factors:
- age and its inherent changes;
- the gestation period of the baby;
- a sharp increase in body weight;
- stress, starvation;
- infections, diseases of the endocrine department, etc.
Frequent sources of insulin resistance are presented:
Excess sugar – active insulin production is provoked by sweet foods. As a result, sensitivity to it decreases at the cellular level, and the volume of glucose remains at a high level.
Obesity – substances are produced in adipose tissues that affect the susceptibility of cells. Excess weight causes a violation of the interaction of hormonal substances with receptors, which leads to incorrect glucose transport at the cellular level.
Genetic predisposition – hereditary diseases play a big role in the problem. Disorders in carbohydrate metabolism are registered in patients in whose family there were people with obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus.
The main pathological mechanisms of the disease development are presented:
- increased indicators of free fatty acids;
- inflammatory processes in adipose tissues and chronic hyperglycemia;
- oxidative metabolic stress;
- violations of mitochondrial functionality.
The development of insulin resistance is caused by the loss of individual tissues to perceive the hormone.
Varieties of the disease
Experts divide insulin resistance into four main subspecies:
Physiological – refers to adaptive mechanisms, is responsible for the release of incoming energy. The deviation is often found in adolescence and old age, during pregnancy, at night (in a dream) and with excessive enthusiasm for fatty dishes.
Metabolic – is registered in case of metabolic disorders. The condition is present in diabetes mellitus, prolonged fasting, alcohol poisoning, obesity of any degree.
Pathological non-endocrine – develops with hypertension, cirrhosis of the liver, burns, blood poisoning, after surgical interventions. It is used to preserve homeostasis in diseases and various conditions.
There are no specific symptoms of the disease, the pathology is determined by concomitant signs:
- for abdominal obesity affecting the performance of internal organs;
- increased blood pressure with attacks of cephalgia, dizziness, impaired clarity of consciousness, tachycardia, active work of sweat glands;
- a state of weakness, unreasonable irritability, constant thirst or hunger – symptoms are associated with high blood sugar levels;
- specific skin coloration – black keratosis, manifested in the cervical, axillary, thoracic region, with peeling and wrinkles.
Insulin resistance in women can be manifested by symptoms of hormonal imbalance provoked by PCOS. Pathology is determined by fatty seborrhea, acne, disorders in the menstrual cycle, active growth of body hair.
The presence of pathology leads to the development of diabetes mellitus and a number of cardiovascular diseases. Violation of blood circulation is associated with the inability of arterial vessels to expand. Against the background of obesity, changes in clotting activity and insulin resistance, atherosclerosis begins to form.
Patients need complex treatment aimed at strengthening the insulin response from the tissues and normalizing the concentration of individual indicators, the list includes:
Therapy takes place with a parallel reduction in body weight and prevention of obesity, prevention of the development of heart and vascular diseases, diabetes mellitus. Endocrinologists, nutritionists, and a physical therapy doctor are engaged in treatment.
Patients are assigned:
- Drug therapy – medications are used for patients whose BMI exceeds 30 units, which is a predisposition to cardiovascular pathologies. Reducing weight and increasing the level of sensitivity of cells to insulin is carried out with the help of alpha-glucosidase blockers, thiazolidinediones, biguanides.
- Diet menu – provides a diet with a minimum carbohydrate content. Meals are fractional, up to 7 times a day, with small portions. The scheme is designed to support stable glucose levels in the bloodstream, uniform hormone production. It is forbidden to go on fasting.
- Sports – physical exercises, long walks improve the speed of glucose transportation, activate the synthesis of glycogen. Classes are selected by a doctor taking into account the presence of diseases of the heart, blood vessels, joints. Training begins with a light warm-up with gymnastics, ends with strength and cardio training. The main condition for physical therapy is regular attendance.
The fight against insulin resistance should take place at the initial stages of the development of the pathological process. The neglected disease leads to diseases of the cardiovascular department, the appearance of diabetes mellitus. A complete cure of the latter is impossible, the disease is characterized by a chronic course.