Periodic bleeding of the gums, their soreness and discomfort in the oral cavity are common symptoms of gingivitis, which is often caused by bacterial plaque or lack of vitamins. It can be cured in a few days. But sometimes such signs accompany a more dangerous pathology — periodontal dystrophy. With its advanced stage, the risk of tooth loss and the impossibility of further prosthetics increases. After all, the bone elements that hold the roots of the teeth in the jaws are destroyed.
Causes of periodontal disease
Dystrophic processes in the area of the junction of teeth and gums occur in a chronic progressive form. The exact causes of the pathological mechanism are unknown, but it has been proven that there are factors that provoke the destruction of tissues:
- violation of capillary circulation: due to smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and other systemic processes;
- hypovitaminosis, especially the lack of ascorbic acid, vitamins A, E, group B;
- general physical exhaustion;
- age-related slowing of metabolism;
- chronic intoxication with chemicals;
- genetic disorders of the structure of teeth and gums;
- poor oral hygiene.
At a young age, periodontal disease is rare. The main group of his victims are people over 40 years old, men get sick more often. Pathology occurs in every tenth dentist patient. Tobacco smoking has a powerful complex provoking effect. It reduces the absorption of ascorbic acid, disrupts blood circulation in tissues, accelerates the deposition of plaque and calculus.
Signs and stages of periodontal disease
Primary changes in metabolic processes are asymptomatic for several months. Patients do not notice disorders of well-being or pain. When plaque is deposited near the gingival papillae, a slight irritation may be felt after eating, when chewing solid food.
- At the initial clinical stage of pathology, the gums become paler than usual: whitish, yellowish, their healthy light pink color is lost. Characteristic symptom: periodic appearance of blood on the toothbrush without injury or pain. As the mucous membranes loosen, bleeding becomes more frequent, and the gums themselves become lower, their edges seem to recede from the dental walls. Over time, the sensitivity of teeth and gums increases: to acidic foods, cold and hot drinks.
- Progressive periodontal disease is accompanied by the deposition of tartar on the necks of the teeth, in the resulting subgingival pockets. A lot of bacteria in it cause constant inflammation, bad breath. Even dentists cannot completely clean such impurities, special procedures are required. As the plaque thickens and the surrounding tissues degenerate, the teeth become loose, become mobile, and seem longer due to the exposure of the necks. Eating solid food becomes difficult due to their unstable situation. Blood flows regularly from the gums, and they themselves loosen up. At this stage, the doctor makes a diagnosis based on the appearance of the oral cavity. It lasts for several years, with timely medical care there are chances to save teeth.
- At the advanced stage, the gums weaken so much that the teeth expose the necks by half their length. Patients can lose them even with a slight load on them: during cleaning, eating. The connections of the roots with the jaw completely dissolve. Tooth rows with the loss of one copy quickly “disperse”, the destruction accelerates. In severe cases, they are thinning literally before our eyes. Patients can eat only mashed soft dishes.
On the enamel of teeth with periodontal disease, there may be a wedge-shaped defect, scuffs, thinning and other non-carious pathologies.
Treatment of periodontal disease
The appearance of blood from the gums, any discomfort in the oral cavity— is a reason for an urgent examination at the dentist. If signs of periodontal disease are detected, comprehensive medical care is necessary. If necessary: correction of general physical condition:
- appointment of special therapy for existing digestive and vascular diseases;
- giving up nicotine, alcohol;
- revision of the diet: the introduction of vitamin products into it;
- you should also buy special mineral supplements, antiseptic products for rinsing the oral cavity.
The periodontist performs the direct treatment of the dentoalveolar joints of the jaw bones. In the absence of pronounced damage, the formed bacterial plaque is completely removed from the patients, procedures are prescribed to strengthen the gums, massage, physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory medications. Further success depends on the state of health, lifestyle and age of the patients. In young and middle-aged people, the prognosis is more favorable. If medical recommendations are followed, there is a chance to stop the pathology and restore tissue nutrition.
At the advanced stage, when the process of tooth loss is irreversible, the jaws are strengthened by cable-stayed splinting or special flex arches. If possible, if the gums have not sunk very much, prostheses or implants are installed.
The best prevention of the disease: dental examinations twice a year and competent oral hygiene. Professional ultrasonic cleaning, the use of rinses with antiseptics, regular consumption of raw fruits and vegetables are recommended.